A systematic theory of universal ethics and a code for global ethics education

(A code for global universal ethics education, its conceptual foundations and its political implications)


By Enno A. Winkler MD PhD

Abstract: The paper analyzes the political, philosophical, societal, legal, educational, biological, psychological and technological reasons why there is an urgent need for intercultural and interfaith ethics in the world and whether it would be possible to formulate a valid code of such ethics. It is shown that universal ethics could be based on natural law, which can be understood in both religious and secular ways. Alternatively, universal ethics could be based on one single supreme principle, which is independent of worldview and culture and which is human dignity. In accordance with these concepts, a minimalist and normative code of essential, self-evident universal ethical principles and norms is proposed. The implementation of universal ethics in society is a long-term political task and could be achieved by being included in the compulsory school education of all countries and in the UNESCO agenda of Global Citizen Education.

Keywords: universal ethics, global moral values, human dignity, ethics education, global citizen education, interfaith, intercultural, risk prevention

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Do we need universal ethics, that is, ethics which are valid across places, cultures, religions, secular worldviews and times? And do we need universal ethics for global moral education?  How could a code of universal ethics conceptually be justified? And how could it be formulated? What are the prerequisites? Do ethics have a biological basis? How could the code be implemented around the world? Could education policy help with implementation?


1. The need for universal ethics

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) believed that we are neither wholly determined to act by natural impulse, nor are we free of non-rational impulse. Hence, we need some common rules of conduct that tell us how we ought to act when it is in our power to choose.(1) Charles Darwin (1809- 1882) considered morality a crucial instinct for survival in social animals: No tribe (or other community) could hold together if such behaviors as murder, robbery, and falseness were common.(2) And Sissela Bok (1934-) thought that  a minimalist  set of common moral values that everyone knows is indispensable for  interpersonal, cross-cultural and interfaith communication and cooperation.(3) However, there are also other, crucial reasons why we need universal ethics and I would like to add several of the most obvious: 
1. To achieve a more peaceful and sustainable world in which every human individual, family and community can have a good life and thrive. 
2. To serve as guidance to politics across places, cultures, beliefs and times.
3. To provide the Universal Human Rights of the United Nations with their necessary and, until now, lacking counterpart, that is, with Universal Human Duties. Rights are not sustainable without duties. In addition, without obligations in common, any claim supported by strong lobbies could eventually be presented as a human right. 
4. To provide UNESCO’s Global Citizenship Education Program (GCED) with universally valid moral standards.
5. Specific ethics such as political ethics, security ethics, bioethics, business ethics, educational ethics, public sector ethics, environmental ethics, and information ethics, and positive law require a starting point or common foundation/ lowest denominator, to be consistent. This also applies to global ethics education.               
6. Long-term existential risk reduction/prevention:  Humanity will disappear when our planet, solar system or galaxy undergo substantial changes or disintegrate, in 800-900 million years at the latest when the rising temperatures caused by the changing sun will make the biosphere unsustainable.(4) However, humans will become extinct long before then, due to certain processes and events, which are partially or totally produced by themselves, if they are not willing to accept basic rules of conduct in common.
Such events/processes could include: overpopulation; exhaustion of natural resources and energy; gray goo; poisoning of the land, atmosphere and oceans; nuclear, chemical, biological,  climatic and cyber disasters; pandemics; global drug addiction;  genetic degeneration;  destruction of the biological family; social isolation of the individual; increase in psychopaths; normalization of physical and mental disorders; social psychopathies; sectarian interests converted into ideologies, ideologies converted into religions and religions converted  into ideologies; mind control technology; autonomic artificial intelligence; systemic loss, violation or misrepresentation of moral values and law / anarchy; abolition of human dignity; global madness; global terrorism, global wars and “new” wars (5), which cannot be prevented nor solved with technical weapons alone. It could be that one or another of these processes even constitutes what I would call “human phyloapoptosis” or the programmed death of the human species, but that the human will could change.

Hereinafter, a normative and minimalist code for global universal ethics education will be proposed which was developed by the author in the 1990 and published on his website in 2002, without, however, giving any arguments.(6)
                                                                                                                                                                                         

2. Definitions and Methodology

2.1. Methodology 
A code or system of universal ethics could be based on Natural Law, which is the most-agreed upon metaphysical foundation of universal ethics. Another approach, which is based on one supreme ethical principle, will be presented in the discussion.

The concept of natural law is as old as philosophy and can be traced back to Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 536–470 B.C.E.)  in the west (7) and  Lao-tze (c. 604. - c. 531 B.C.E.) in the east (8), showing a remarkable simultaneity in its appearance. It may be, however, that natural law emerged even earlier in civilizations of which we have no written record. Later, natural law is found in one form or another in almost all major religions and philosophies, although it has been most developed in the Christian tradition.

If we follow the French philosopher Jacques Maritain (1882-1973), who is a successor of Saint Thomas de Aquinas (1225-1274), “Natural Law is an ideal order relating to human actions, a divide between the suitable and the unsuitable, between what is proper and what is improper to the ends of human nature or essence”.(9) It is that participation of the eternal law of the cosmos (the ontological element), the knowledge of which is innate to man and can be discovered by him (the gnoseological element) by becoming aware of his inclinations/moral instincts and applying reason.(10)

According to Maritain, this cognitive process advances little by little as man’s moral conscience develops, temporary errors included. Although the eternal law of the cosmos (and thus also natural law) is divine for the Thomists, I hold that it can be understood also in a secular way. In both cases, natural law will remain to be defined as that participation of the eternal law, the knowledge of which is innate to man and can be discovered by him.

To relativize the historical connotations of the gnoseological component of classical natural law, however, it is convenient to restrict natural law to the very essentials of human existence and fulfillment. It is also appropriate to replace "becoming aware of man’s inclinations/instincts” with "intuition / revelation."

What is important for the purpose of this presentation is that both the religious and the secular perception of the eternal law of the cosmos and ergo of natural law can coexist in peace and with them the religious and secular understanding of universal ethics.

Based on these conceptual foundations, the identification of essential and self-evident ethical principles and norms for human survival and fulfillment and their compilation to a code of universal ethics was done using life experience, intuition, research (study of the history of ethical thought, cultures, religions, human evolution, ecology, genetics, neuroscience, sociology, psychology and astrophysics) and applying reason.

2.2. Definitions
Humans are biological, self-conscious living beings who are endowed with reason, are dualistic (both individual and social), and are conditioned to inhabit the planet Earth and its reachable surroundings.  This essence of human nature is the same in all people and independent of human religions, worldviews, cultures and history.                                                                         
Ethics are a system of moral principles and norms that guide the relationships between humans and between humans and their natural and artificial environment. The ethics code described in this paper does not include the relationship between humans and God, thereby allowing the parallel coexistence of the code with religious codes.                                  
Universal in our context means that it applies to all people across places, cultures, religions, worldviews and lifetimes of the human individuals, human societies and the human species as a whole. This definition implies also that it must be normative. Since —according to Maritain­— everything existing in nature has his own natural law (that is the normality of its functioning), human universal ethics are universal only for humans and disappear when humanity becomes extinct.
Minimalist: The code has to be narrowed down to the ends of the very essence of human nature, in order to 1) relativize the historical connotations of the gnoseological element of classical natural law and 2) serve as the starting point and lowest common denominator for specific ethics and positive law. Furthermore, “minimalist values require no special erudition, or even literacy, to be understood”(11) and are easy to remember, which is a prerequisite for compliance.
Innate or connatural knowledge is genetically and epigenetically transmitted preconscious knowledge.
Instinct: Instincts are pre/subconsciously processed complex patterns of automated behavior.
Intuition which, in a religious context, may be perceived as revelation is the act of becoming aware of the results of the subconscious processing (“reasoning” at evolutionarily lower-level brain centers) of accessible preconscious, subconscious and conscious knowledge, of which the first is innate, and the latter two are acquired.
Normative: To be 1) universal and 2) effective, a code of universal ethics has to be normative, that is, possess not only a moral ought but also a legal ought to guide human actions and choices. According to Rommen, natural law binds all men collectively and each one separately.(12)  
                                                                                                                 

3.  Proposal of a code of universal ethics

3.1. The Code                                                                                                     


I

Principles: 
1) Each human being is endowed with personal dignity. 
2) His liberty finds its limits where the dignity of the other begins.                                                                          
3) State, religious, economic and other office holders are in his service.

II

Commandments: 
1) Respect the other as yourself.
2) Do not lie. 
3) Do not steal. 
4) Respect life. 
5) Protect nature.                                                                                                                            

III

Enforcement: 
The violation of these principles and commandments is subject to social rejection and punishment under equal rules and laws for everybody. 

3. 2. Explanatory notes
3. 2. 1 Principles: These principles serve as a basis not only for universal ethics but also for universal human rights, thereby ensuring the compatibility and complementarity of both, which are actually the two sides of the same coin. Principle 1 refers to the dignity of the human individual, that is, to his liberty. It is the origin, basis and fundamental content and end of any human ethics and can be found in all major religions, secular worldviews and constitutions. Even the Constitution of China stipulates in Article 38 that "The personal dignity of the citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable”.(13) Principle 2 regulates the situation when there are two or more individuals, restricting the unlimited liberty of an individual in relation to his next (rationale of social behavior, equality and justice). For example, freedom of expression ends where the dignity of the other begins. And principle 3 regulates the relations in an organized human community. It is the democratic principle based on human dignity and is a logical consequence of principles 1 and 2.
3.2.2. Commandments: These commandments are the essentials and self-evident. Their combination enables us to derive secondary moral norms using experience and practical reason. The combination of commandments 2) and 3), for example,yields: Do not defraud / do not corrupt! The combination of commandments 1) and 4) includes: Do not torture! 
Commandment 1) applies not only to human individuals but, by extension, also to their natural and artificial environment as basis of their existence and to their family, community and society, as a whole. It is the rule of reciprocity, the “golden rule”, the most basic norm that regulates the relations between people and reflects nonviolence, human rights and the democratic principle. It is modified, though, in order to be valid also in the absence of empathy, sympathy or compassion and to allow solutions for certain situations, such as when a judge has to put someone in prison for breaking the law. Commandments 2) and 3) are basic norms that are crucial for transparency, trust and security and, thus, for the peaceful coexistence of people. Commandment 4) protects the life and integrity of humans, animals and plants, the most basic right of every living being. However, it does not say “Do not kill”, since that would exclude all life that depends on organic alimentation, would exclude defending ourselves against microbes, aggressors and assassins, and would exclude such issues as voluntary euthanasia. Since animals and plants are included in this commandment, it leads over to Commandment 5) that protects nature (and thus environment), because it is the origin and basis of our existence. This commandment says “protect nature” and not “preserve nature” because the latter would exclude us from feeding ourselves from nature or destroying a meteorite that threatens earth.
Since life is not merely a black or white issue, moral situations are not either. In certain situations, it may be necessary to go back to the most essential norm of universal ethics, which is the modified golden rule, and use practical reason and life experience to solve a moral question.
3.2.3. Enforcement:  This provision is intended to ensure that the code is not only a moral “ought”, but also a legal “ought” from which there is no escape because its violation is punishable. Punishment, however, presupposes the will to commit an inexcusable ethical violation. Occasionally, a lower-ranking ethical norm has to be violated in order to save a higher norm, or there may be doubts as to which norm is the one to comply with. In these cases, the judgment has to take into account the circumstances of the offense and possibly acquit the offender.

3.3. Implementation of universal ethics
3.3.1. Readiness: The implementation of universal ethics requires a political, societal, cultural and religious climate that is open to interfaith and intercultural ethics. The fostering of this readiness is an assignment of education, information, and intercultural and interfaith experience of all stakeholders of the civic society.
3.3.2. Education: Human behavior is determined in early childhood. Universal ethics should therefore be included into the compulsory school education of all countries. I started a campaign in this regard, asking teachers, schools and local, regional and national educational authorities to integrate universal ethics into the teaching of their area of influence .(14) It would be a good idea to incorporate the Code of Universal Ethics into UNESCO’s Global Citizen Education (GCED),(15) which places emphasis on education in key universal values but does not define what these universal values are.
 3.3.3. Legislation: The universality of the code excludes the existence of legally binding norms that conflict with it. Teaching universal ethics —for the moment possibly only as an aspiration/postulate to facilitate acceptance, particularly in countries with historical-relativistic compatibility reservations, such as China— will cause existing conflicting norms to be adapted to the code over time and new norms will respect the code. This is a long-term political process, which could last 3-4 generations (75-100 years), that is, until universal ethics is fully established in the education, public opinion and law of all countries.
                                                                                                                          

4. Discussion

It is a fact that philosophers discussed ethics for millennia without managing to establish a valid code of universal ethics for humans. In endeavoring to give universal ethics a metaphysical foundation, their attempts usually became lost in the labyrinths of philosophical circular thinking. Or they failed because they used concepts/justifications that are not universal (e.g., utility, empathy, virtues), did not provide definitions, included secondary norms and even specifics, or discarded normativity. In this way other attempts such as those of the UN / UNESCO (16) and of the Parliament of World Religions (17) also failed.

The question is, could there be a code of ethics, which is not based on metaphysics but nevertheless is universal in the terms given above?  I think yes! Sissela Bok suggested that a minimalist set of common values already recognized in every society, which leaves room for cultural diversity, could be acknowledged as common and be respected all over the world.(18) However, universal ethics for humans could also be built upon just one single “supreme principle of morality” (Kant),(19) deriving other essential principles and rules from this supreme principle. Unlike for Kant, the supreme principle of morality for me is not an order for how to establish universal moral norms, but the most obvious and consented principle/end of human existence, which is that which we already know from natural law ethics: human dignity. The commitment to human dignity, in the form of the Golden Rule or Rule of Reciprocity, evidently originated in the human dualistic condition as both an individual and a social being. Reciprocal “morality,” in fact, even can be traced back to the existential instinct of the first primitive animals to contribute to the survival and progression of the group, in order to ensure, in turn, their own survival and progression. According to H.J. Gensler the golden rule has been common to all major religions and philosophies throughout human history.(20) 

The resulting minimalist, normative, universal ethics could be called the Ethics of Human Dignity and, textually, would be the same as the code of Natural Law Ethics described above.  Both ethics, though, are first and foremost Existential Ethics.

There is considerable discussion on whether the so called Eastern collectivistic and Western individualistic cultures can tolerate a common basic ethics. However, intercultural plurality could be interpreted as a surface phenomenon which is assuredly compatible with a universally valid depth-structure of the ethical consciousness.(21) Cross-cultural psychologist S. Schwartz found that individualism and collectivism do not necessarily conflict.(22), (23) Furthermore, even China, as the most influential representative of eastern cultures, does not defend a cultural-relativistic position but only a historical-relativistic one.(24)

Several critics of a code of common basic ethics also argue that such a code does not regulate specifics or that the code would “require a process for extending to the specifics of any particular issues between any particular combination of cultures or interest.” Ideally, this extension process would consist of deriving the specifics from the code using experience and practical reason. However, there are already myriad laws and norms in use in the world (which, in addition, are meticulously diversified by millions of legislators, judges, public prosecutors and lawyers), which of course cannot all be enumerated in one single code nor can they be derived from the code or adapted to it in a single act. Neither specific human situations nor their appropriate regulations, however, are contained in the essence of man.(25) Specifics are the field of specific ethics and common law, not of a superior code of universal ethics. Though the specifics must inversely comply with the code, and if not, have to be adapted to it over time. In any case, there seems to be no need for a complex system of ethics to guide human choices and actions in general.

Do we really want universal ethics? Or do we, in fact, prefer to prevent universal ethics because it could question our own ideology, self-concept or social position and jeopardize our personal aspirations for more money and more power? The leap from essential, self-evident moral principles and rules, whether religiously or secularly justified, to a code of universal human ethics and the insertion of this code in moral education in all countries is ultimately a decision of free will, that is, a political decision. It is that free will which can decide, to a great extent, whether humanity will continue on the path of self-destruction or will work for an earth where all people can thrive.  
                                                                                                                          

5. Conclusion

There is a clear and urgent need for a code of interfaith and intercultural ethics in the world. This universal ethics is possible if based on natural law —which can be understood in both religious and secular ways— or alternatively on one single supreme principle that is derived from the nature of man and that is the same as the first principle of natural law ethics: human dignity. On these conceptual bases, a code of essential, self-evident ethical principles and norms is formulated using intuition, research and applying reason. The code does not require special erudition or even literacy to be understood and is easy to remember, facilitating compliance. The implementation of universal ethics is a long-term political task and could be achieved by being included in the compulsory school education of all countries and in UNESCO’s agenda of Global Citizen Education.
                                                                                                                           

6. Notes 

1. Matt McCormick (n.d.), “Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics”, chap. 8b. In: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed May 28, 2017. http://www.iep.utm.edu/kantmeta/.

2. Charles Darwin, The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex (London: John Murray, 2d ed., 1874), part I, chap. IV, p.117. Accessed May 28, 2017.  http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?pageseq=140&itemID=F944&viewtype=image.

3. Sissela Bok, Common values (Columbia, MO/London: University of Missouri Press, 1995/2002), pp.12-13.

4. Christine Bounama, Werner von Bloh and Siegfried Franck,”Das Ende des Raumschiffs Erde,” Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Okt. 2004, pp.52–59.

5. Mary Kaldor, “In Defence of New Wars.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2(1) (Mar. 2013), art. 4, pp. 1-16. http://doi.org/10.5334/sta.at .

6. Enno A. Winkler (2002), “A code of global universal ethics”. Accessed 28 May 2017.  http://www.humanrightsaction.org/ethics/english.html.

7. Heinrich A. Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy [1936], trans. Thomas R. Hanley, intro. & bibl. Russell Hittinger  (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1998), part I, chap. I. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/676#Rommen_0017_108.

8. Hu Shih, “The Natural Law in the Chinese Tradition”, In: Natural Law Institute Proceedings, 5 (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1953),   pp.117-153. http://scholarship.law.nd.edu/naturallaw_proceedings/5. 

9. Jacques Maritain, Natural Law. Reflections on Theory & Practice, ed. &intro William Sweet (South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press, 2001), p.29. 

10. Maritain, Natural Law. Reflections on Theory & Practice, pp.27-35. 

11. Bok, Common values, pp.18-19.

12. Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy, part I, chap. VII. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/676#Rommen_0017_365

13.Yang Chengming and Guo Yucheng (2014), “The Value and Realization of Human Dignity”. Accessed 28 May 2017.  http://www.chinahumanrights.org/html/2014/PAPERS_1028/965.html .

14. Enno A. Winkler (2012), “Universal ethics campaign”. Accessed 28 May 2017.  http://www.humanrightsaction.org/universal-ethics-campaign.php.

15. UNESCO, Global Citizenship Education: Topics and learning objectives (Paris: UNESCO, 2015). Accessed 28 May 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002329/232993e.pdf.

16. Yersu Kim, A common framework for the ethics of the 21st century (Paris: UNESCO Universal Ethics Project, 1999). Accessed 28 May 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117622eo.pdf .

17. Parliament of the world’s religions, Declaration toward a global ethic (Chicago 1993). Accessed 28 May 2017. https://parliamentofreligions.org/pwr_resources/_includes/FCKcontent/File/TowardsAGlobalEthic.pdf .

18. Bok, Common values, chap. I.

19. Allan W. Wood (n .d.), “The Supreme Principle of Morality”. Accessed 28 May 2017. https://web.stanford.edu/~allenw/webpapers/SupremePrincipleMorality.pdf  .

20. Harry J. Gensler,”A Golden Rule Chronology,” In: Harry J. Gensler, Ethics and the Golden Rule (New York: Routledge Press, 2013), pp.76-107. 

21. See Eberhard Schockenhoff , Natural Law & Human Dignity. Universal Ethics in an Historical World, trans. Brian McNeil (Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2003), p.73.

22. Shalom H. Schwartz, “Individualism-collectivism: Critique and proposed refinements.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21(2) (June 1990), pp.139-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022190212001 .
23. See also Chong Ho Yu (1990), “Chinese ethics and universal human rights”. Accessed 28 May 2017. http://www.creative-wisdom.com/education/china/Chinese_ethics.html.

24. Karl-Heinz Pohl (n.d.), “ Zur Universalität und Relativität von Ethik und Menschenrechten im Dialog mit China”. Accessed 28 May 2017.
https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb2/SIN/Pohl_Publikation/Universalitaet_und_Relativitaet_von_Ethik_und_Menschenrechten.pdf  .

25. Maritain, Natural Law. Reflections on Theory & Practice, p.30.

 

© 29/05/2017  Enno A.Winkler

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